In spite of the extensive variation of form and function among organisms, several fundamental criteria characterize all life.
Posted on March 9, by Fallacy Man This is one of the most common arguments that I hear from creationists. The claim is that if evolution is true, then in the fossil record we should see lots of intermediate species.
In other words, we should see transitional fossils showing the changes from one group of organisms to the next. So far, we are on the right track. Evolution certainly does make that prediction.
The problem is that creationists then proceed to make the factually incorrect claim that no transitional fossils have ever been found. As always, I want to be clear that I am attacking creationism, not Christianity. I am concerned with science, not religion, and there are plenty of people who accept evolution and still believe in God.
So do not confuse an assault on the pseudoscience of creationism with an assault on religion. Any species that does not go extinct is an intermediate. So everything is an intermediate between the previous generations and the future generations.
To understand the full story of transitional fossils, we have to go all the way back to Charles Darwin.
Further, being a good scientist, Darwin proposed that the fossil record should be a good way to test his theory. You see, science works by making testable predictions and proposing falsifiable hypotheses.
Transitional fossils meet both of those criteria: Creationism, of course, makes the opposite prediction. Before I go any further, I want you to picture in your mind what an intermediate between a dinosaur and a bird would look like.
No doubt, you have pictured an animal that is halfway between the two: That is also what evolution predicts that we should find. We have other examples such as Confuciusornis, Jeholornis, and Sinornis just to name a few.
All of these fossils not only display some traits of dinosaurs and some of birds, but they show a spectrum of change. This is critically important. If creationism is true, and organisms are relegated to distinct kinds, then there should be clear gaps between each kind, but if evolution is true, then there should be a gradual transition resulting not in two distinct kinds, but in a spectrum with multiple intermediate species such that there is no clear break between the two groups.
On the one extreme, we have dinosaurs such as Triceratops and Stegosaurus that are clearly reptiles, but the group of dinosaurs know as Theropods already show some bird-life features. For example, the furculum commonly known as a wishbone was once thought to belong exclusively to birds, but we now know that some Theropods had it.
Further, many of these dinosaurs had feathers again a trait that was once thought to be unique to birds. Dinosaurs known as Oviraptors are even suspected to have guarded their nests a trait that is rare among reptiles. In fact, many of these dinosaurs are so bird-like that scientists are flummoxed about whether they are birds or reptiles.
There is no really clear point at which they stop being reptiles and start being birds exactly as we would expect if evolution was true. Jumping ahead a few million years from the obvious dinosaurs, we arrive at the famous Archaeopteryx.
At this point, everyone is in agreement that it is a bird and could fly for short periods, but it is still distinctly different from our modern birds.
For example, it had a skull with teeth, long forearms, a long tail, a small sternum, and largely unfused digits on the hands.
All of these features are found in dinosaurs and modern reptiles, but not in modern birds. In fact, despite being considered a bird, the skeleton of Archaeopteryx is so very dinosaur like that scientists once misidentified an Archaeopteryx skeleton as the skeleton of a Theropod dinosaur know as Compsognathus!
Archaeopteryx is as clear of an intermediate as we could ever hope to find.In reading the book, I learned about the basilosaurus, saltationism, mutations, natural selection, materialism, and so forth.
It isn’t for beginners! It isn’t for beginners! Furthermore, Johnson’s work is well documented so the curious reader can trace out some of his arguments.
Jul 15, · Hello there!
I just went through the same scenario myself this spring. I opted for the GLX Bronzeback rod. Basically I wanted a go to spinning rod that would handle my Smallie addiction in the rivers, do other species duty and do it all from rutadeltambor.com rivers.
A scientific theory, by the way, is a set of facts that are linked together to form a factual synopsis of what has or is taking place. Evolution only ever occurs at genetic level (or the “micro evolution” level as creationist like to say). Insecurity and fear are the only reasons to try to drown out facts or dismiss religion out of hand.
If you've read it and thought about it and looked at your life experiences and decided you can't buy it, that's one thing, but no one's life experiences disprove evolution. May 13, · Mr Naish says.. answering your questions properly would require me to write an entire article on the subject.
I’m happy to do that, of course, but I’m kind of busy right now (and, sorry. The Scientific Method, Exemplified By Palaeontology By Marc Srour June 30, February 21, This talk is aimed at the basic, general public level, and is about how science is done through the scientific method, and how to differentiate ideas that belong in the yellow circle downwards from the ideas that are in the nebulous circles outside.