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To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense Possible essay questions antigone political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this war, and its results, that caused each of these superpowers to experience such a preponderance of power.
Before the war, both nations were fit to be described as great powers, but it would be erroneous to say that they were superpowers at that point. To understand how the second World War impacted these nations so greatly, we must examine the causes of the war.
The United States gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power.
From these situations, similar foreign policies resulted from widely divergent origins. Whether this is the case or not, Roosevelt was forced to work with an inherently isolationist Congress, only expanding its horizons after the bombing of Pearl Harbour.
He signed the Neutrality Act ofmaking it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the belligerents of any conflict. The act also stated that belligerents could buy only non-armaments from the US, and even these were only to be bought with cash. The Soviet Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union would take a brunt of a Nazi attack as a result.
These treaties, however, were designed more to create security for the West, as opposed to keeping all three signatories from harm. At the same time, Stalin was attempting to polarise both the Anglo-French, and the Axis Possible essay questions antigone against each other.
The important result of this was the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, which partitioned Poland, and allowed Hitler to start the war. Another side-effect of his policy of playing both sides was that it caused incredible distrust towards the Soviets from the Western powers after This was due in part to the fact that Stalin made several demands for both influence in the Dardanelles, and for Bulgaria to be recognised as a Soviet dependant.
The seeds of superpowerdom lie here however, in the late thirties. Overy has written that "stability in Europe might have been achieved through the existence of powers so strong that they could impose their will on the whole of the international system, as has been the case since Britain and France were in imperial decline, and more concerned about colonial economics than the stability of Europe.
Both imperial powers assumed that empire-building would necessarily be an inevitable feature of the world system. German aggression could have been stifled early had the imperial powers had acted in concert.
The memories of World War One however, were too powerful, and the general public would not condone a military solution at that point. The aggression of Germany, and to a lesser extent that of Italy, can be explained by this decline of imperial power.
They were simply attempting to fill the power vacuum in Europe that Britain and France unwittingly left. The two nations were determined to maintain their status as great powers however, without relying on the US or the USSR for support of any kind.
They went to war only because further appeasement would have only served to remove from them their little remaining world standing and prestige.
The creation of a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany can be viewed as an example of imperial decline as well. Stalin explained the fact that he reached a rapprochement with Germany, and not one with Great Britain by stating that "the USSR and Germany had wanted to change the old equilibrium England and France wanted to preserve it.
Germany also wanted to make a change in the equilibrium, and this common desire to get rid of the old equilibrium had created the basis for the rapprochement with Germany.
One of two ways war could have been avoided was for the United States or Russia to have taken powerful and vigorous action against Germany in Divine, holds that "superpowerdom gives a nation the framework by which a nation is able to extend globally the reach of its power and influence.
The question must then be raised, were the United States and Russia superpowers even then, could coercive, unilateral actions taken by them have had such significant ramifications for the international order? It must be concluded that, while they were not yet superpowers, they certainly were great powers, with the incredible amount of influence that accompanies such status.
Neither the United States nor the Soviet Union possessed the international framework necessary to be a super power at this time. It is likely that frameworks similar to Nato or the Warsaw Pact could have been developed, but such infrastructures would have necessarily been on a much smaller scale, and without influence as the proposed Anglo-American English speaking world pact was.
At this time, neither the United States nor Russia had developed the overwhelming advantages that they possessed at the end of the war. There are several factors that allowed them to become superpowers: The United States, it seems, did not become a superpower by accident.
Indeed, Roosevelt had a definite European policy that was designed from the start to secure a leading role for the United States. In order to make it nearly impossible for France to reclaim her former world position, Roosevelt objected to De Gaul taking power immediately after the war.
Roosevelt defended the Allies "right [to] hold the political situation in trust for the French people.World War II: the Rise of the Superpowers, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.
Title: A Room of One's Own Author: Virginia Woolf * A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook * eBook No.: txt Edition: 1 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII Date first posted: October Date most recently updated: July This eBook was produced by: Col Choat Production notes: Italics in the book have been converted to upper case.
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