Abstract Purpose A contact lens CL can act as a vector for microorganisms to adhere to and transfer to the ocular surface. Commensal microorganisms that uneventfully cohabitate on lid margins and conjunctivae and potential pathogens that are found transiently on the ocular surface can inoculate CLs in vivo. In the presence of reduced tissue resistance, these resident microorganisms or transient pathogens can invade and colonize the cornea or conjunctiva to produce inflammation or infection.
A long time economic and social objectives have been seen as competing, but academic researchers underline that this two directions may converge in certain situations.
Companies belong to communities where they develop their activities. When the social goals of the communities are related to the main objectives of the company, sustaining a social cause could produce economic benefits, in this case corporate philanthropy and shareholders interest take the same direction.
Cause-related marketing is a marketing concept that gained more interest in the last three decades and exemplifies how social and economic objectives are achieved in a strategic manner in promoting campaigns.
Researches in business and non-profit organizations reveal that cause-related marketing campaigns sustain the growth of market share and sales, and help at improving brands image.
More and more companies and non-profit organizations find cause-related marketing as a strategic tool suitable for building long term relations to the customers, for increasing brand awareness, for gaining a social responsible corporative image, for supporting local community or for producing transformation in sustaining causes at global or international level.
The study analyses the definitions of cause-related marketing the presence and evolution of the concept in the academic literature, and marketing terms that are connected more often to this concept. Comparative to non-profit marketing concept, cause-related marketing gained a larger interest in literature.
On the other side, corporate philanthropy is still a concept that gains more interest than cause-related marketing in academic literature, being a more commune way used by companies in collaboration to non-profit organizations.
Tided to cause-related marketing concept literature review reveals concepts as: The salience of the consumer perspective, in academic research underlines the strategic and tactic role of cause-related marketing that has to be considered in building relations to the customers for companies.
M13, L31, L33 Keywords: The practice of cause-related marketing gained increasingly interest, but the definitions of the concept still vary. Cause marketing is defined as an action between a non-profit organization and a company, of marketing an image, a message, or delivering a service for mutual benefit Marconi, Other authors consider it is a marketing activity in which company donations to a cause are based on the sales of specified goods or services Larson et al.
Cause-related marketing is also seen as a promotional strategy Tangari et al. Adkins considers that cause-related marketing is a marketing-driven activity, that businesses, charities or good causes, develop cause-related marketing programs for achieving their objectives.
Organizations and companies are also interested to receive a return on their investment, even if that investment is cash, time or other resources.
In a cause-related marketing campaign, part of the revenue of every purchase can be donated to a certain cause by company to a non-profit organization. Cause-related marketing campaigns may differ from a company to another, regarding the cause type, non-profit organization profile or other aspects.
Not all companies choose to donate money in cause-related marketing program, some choose to use corporate philanthropy and employers volunteerism as activities to improve their social responsible image.
Researches in business and non-profit organizations reveal that cause-related marketing campaigns sustain the growth of market share and sales, and help at improving brands image Marconi, A long time economic and social objectives have been seen as competing, but academic researchers underline that they are not.
According to Marconi companies choose to engage in partnerships with non-profit organizations for sustaining different causes may choose one of the following strategies or directions: All these directions assume a strategic orientation of the companies.
Cause-related marketing concept evolution in the literature. A visible interest in the analysed literature is obvious after since the presence of the concepts exponentially grew.
Science,Michel et al. Google Ngram application offers the possibility of analysing concepts evolution related through calculating the differences between the occurrences of the concepts in the literature in the mentioned period Michel et al.
Cause Related Concept in Academic Research. A Content Analysis of Scholarly Literature For observing the main subjects associated to cause-related marketing in recent academic research, a study of abstracts of scholarly published articles, from ProQuest Central database was conducted.Library of Product Literature.
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