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Declaration Introduction The decision to disconnect a patient in a persistent vegetative state PVS is one which will probably determine whether the patient continues to live or die. It is a moral decision which will have different outcomes, depending on whether one takes a Kantian or Utilitarian approach in making that decision.
In this essay, I will give a brief description of the permanent vegetative state followed by a more detailed account of each of the Kantian and Utilitarian approaches. I will then apply each approach to the issue of disconnecting the respirator from the PVS patient, highlighting the differences between the two and I will make some concluding remarks.
There are often inconsistent non-purposive movements, notably facial grimacing and chewing. According to Jennet Kantian Approach Immanuel Kant published during the Enlightenment and believed that humans have power to use reason to solve their problems.
The focus of The schiavos rule utilitarianism and kantian Ethics is on ideals of universal law and respect for persons.
The following are some of the distinctive elements of Kantian ethics, summarized from Pence Ethics is a matter of duty, not of consequences — the reason for the act is more important than its good or bad results. In Kantian ethics, any acts done from duty and not, for example from compassion, are praiseworthy.
According to Kant, when we act morally, reason tells feelings what to do. A good will which is the trait of character indicating a willingness to choose the right act simply because it is right is the only thing valuable in the world.
In order to know what is right and what is our duty, Kant gives this formulation: A right act has a maxim that can be universalized. A right act always treats other people as ends in themselves and never as mere means to an end Every person has absolute, infinite moral worth.
No person has relative worth. People are only free when they act rationally According to Pence But, controversially, Kant denies that we are truly acting morally when we do the right thing because we are accustomed to it, because it feels right or because society favours the act.
The only time a person can act morally is when she exercises her rational, free will to understand why certain rules are right and then chooses to bind her actions to these rules. Kant calls the capacity to act this way, autonomy.
One conclusion to draw from all this is that very few people act morally. Some problems in Kantian Ethics Kantian Ethics do not help us to decide between two competing, universalizable maxims. The treating of every human being as having infinite value is not always practical.
It seeks to maintain disinterested devotion to moral duty. It is a consequentialist, moral theory in which the ends consequences justify the means actions. This naturally leads to the realisation that actions are neither right nor wrong; rightness or wrongness depends on the consequences.
A theory of value or of good: Good consequences are defined by pleasure hedonic utilitarianism. A scope of morality premise: For utilitarianism, right acts produce the 2 greatest amount of 3 good 1 consequences for the 2 greatest number of 4 beings.
All actions are judged according to whether they augment or diminish the happiness of those affected by the action. Utilitarianism is called positive utilitarianism when it focuses on benefitting humanity. Negative utilitarianism focuses on relieving the greatest misery for the greatest number.
The utilitarianism discussed thus far is called Act utilitarianism where the consequences of an act determine its moral worth and utility is maximised by maximising happiness. Rule utilitarianism rejects the greatest happiness principle and believes that the normal moral rules maximise utility over decades.
While they claim that an act is only permissible if it follows from a rule whose adaption by almost everyone would maximise happiness, they allow breaking that rule in special circumstances where breaking it will in fact bring about maximum happiness.Start studying ethics.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. rule utilitarianism. is the view that an action is right if and only if it is in accord with that set of rules the (near) universal acceptance of which would bring about the most utility on a kantian .
Peter Huang PHL (5) Dr. Marshall Osman 3 December Number 6 Immanuel Kant believed in utilitarianism, which is the moral philosophy that says we should act in such ways as to make the greatest number of people happy as possible.
Oct 06, · Utilitarianism is a very influential theory, and its variation. The utilitarian principle applies to individual actions. For each action, we consider the . In rule utilitarianism, we follow the rules because doing so maximises utility.
The rationale for the rules is impeccably utilitarian. The rationale for the rules is impeccably utilitarian. In deontology, we follow the rules for some other reason (the precise reason will depend on the precise deontology).
Terri Schiavo: What's Best, Who Should Decide And The Popular Ethic. Pages. Terri Schiavo: What's Best, Who Should Decide And The Popular Ethic. Uploaded by. Daniel Seltzer. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. The differences between Kant’s ethics and rule-utilitarianism – the original assigment (Dutch version, see below) was given a /10 by Peter Sperber, under Approval of Marcus Düwell.