Synopsis[ edit ] A " mode of production " German: Produktionsweise means simply "the distinctive way of producing", which could be defined in terms of how it is socially organized and what kinds of technologies and tools are used.
Karl Marx — Marxist communism refers to classlessstateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production and to a variety of movements acting in the name of this goal which are influenced by the thought of Karl Marx.
In general, the classless forms of social organisation are not capitalised, while movements associated with official Communist parties and Communist states usually are. In the classic Marxist definition pure communisma communist economy refers to a system that has achieved a superabundance of goods and services due to an increase in technological capability and advances in the productive forces and therefore has transcended socialism see post-scarcity economy.
This is a hypothetical stage of social and economic development with few speculative details known about it. The actual goal of communism has never been attained in practice from a Marxist position, though anarchist societies have provided a glimpse of what a communist world would look like.
The real idea behind it is to abolish all leadership, and govern with a commune. That is, the people themselves make all decisions, and everyone contributing to the wellbeing of the commune. In practice, most governments that have claimed to be communist have been totalitarian dictatorships.
The modern political marxist communist movement was created when the social democratic parties of Europe split between their rightist and leftist tendencies during World War I.
The leftists, led internationally by Vladimir LeninRosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknechtto distinguish their brand of socialism from the " reformist " social democrats, were called "communists".
However, after Luxemburg's and Liebknecht's murders the term communist became generally associated solely with the parties and organisations following Lenin, along with their various derivations, such as Stalinism or Maoism.
There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists. However, Marxism and Leninismschools of communism associated with Karl Marx and of Vladimir Lenin respectively, have the distinction of having been a major force in world politics since the early 20th century.
Class struggle plays a central role in Marxism. This theory views the formation of communism as the culmination of the class struggle between the capitalist class, the owners of most of the capital and the working class.
Marx held that society could not be transformed from the capitalist mode of production to the communist mode of production all at once, but required a transitional state which Marx described as the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat.
Some forms of the communist society that Marx envisioned, as emerging from capitalism, have been claimed to be achieved for limited periods during certain historical moments and under certain circumstances.
For example, the Paris Commune in fact let Marx reinforce and implement his theories by adapting them to a real experience he could draw from. Another similar case, though disputed by anarcho-syndicalism or even anarchismwas the Spanish Revolution of often missed or unmentioned by official historiographyduring which much of Spain's economy in most of Republican areas, some of which enjoyed a practical absence of statewas put under workers' direct collective control.
In addition to this, the term communism as well as socialism is often used to refer to those political and economic systems and states dominated by a political, bureaucratic class, typically attached to one single Communist party that follow Marxist-Leninist doctrines and often claim to represent the dictatorship of the proletariat in a non-democratic fashion, described by critics as in a totalitarian and bureaucratic.
These systems are also often called Stalinism, state capitalismstate communism or state socialism. With the Soviet Union's creation after the end of Russian Civil War that followed to initial success of Red October Revolution in Russia, other socialist parties in other countries and the Bolshevik party itself became Communist parties, owing allegiance of varying degrees to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union see Communist International.
Among the other countries in the Third World that adopted a bureaucratic Communist state as form of government at some point were Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Angola and Mozambique.
By the early s, almost one third of the world's population lived under Communist states. Communism carries a strong social stigma in the United States due to a history of anti-communism in the United States. Since the early s, the term " Eurocommunism " was used to refer to the policies of Communist parties in western Europewhich sought to break with the tradition of uncritical and unconditional support of the Soviet Union.
Such parties were politically active and electorally significant in France and Italy. With the collapse of the statalized one-party systems and Marxist—Leninist governments, in eastern Europe from the late s and the breakup of the Soviet Union on December 8,Marxist-Leninist State communism's influence has decreased dramatically in Europe, but around a quarter of the world's population still lives under such a kind of "Communist states".
However, his ideas diverged from classical Marxist theory on several important points see the articles on Marxism and Leninism for more information. Bolshevik communists saw these differences as advancements of Marxism made by Lenin.
After Lenin's death, his ideology and contributions to Marxist theory were termed "Marxism—Leninism", or sometimes only "Leninism". Marxism—Leninism soon became the official name for the ideology of the Comintern and of Communist parties around the world.
Stalinism Stalinism was the theory and practice of communism practiced by Joseph Stalinleader of the Soviet Union from — Officially it adhered to Marxism—Leninismbut whether Stalin's practices actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin is a subject of debate and criticism.
In contrast to Marx and Lenin, Stalin made few new theoretical contributions. Stalin's main contributions to communist theory were Socialism in One Country and the theory of Aggravation of class struggle under socialisma theoretical base supporting the repression of political opponents as necessary.
Stalinism took an aggressive stance on class conflictutilizing state violence in an attempt to forcibly purge society of the bourgeoisie. Maoism A key concept that distinguishes Maoism from other left-wing ideologies is the belief that the class struggle continues throughout the entire socialist period, as a result of the fundamental antagonistic contradiction between capitalism and communism.
Even when the proletariat has seized state power through a socialist revolutionthe potential remains for a bourgeoisie to restore capitalism. Indeed, Mao famously stated that "the bourgeoisie [in a socialist country] is right inside the Communist Party itself", implying that corrupt Party officials would subvert socialism if not prevented.
Unlike the earlier forms of Marxism-Leninism in which the urban proletariat was seen as the main source of revolution, and the countryside was largely ignored, Mao focused on the peasantry as a revolutionary force which, he said, could be mobilized by a Communist Party with their knowledge and leadership.capitalist world.
Marx on the Division of Labor significant levels of alienated labor in state socialist societies is just one more difference between state socialism and the classic Marxian notion of socialism. The Worker Industrial Society: Division of Labor. The theory of alienation is the intellectual construct in which Marx displays the devastating effect of capitalist production on human beings, on their physical and mental states and on the social processes of which they are a part.
Understanding Capitalism Part I: Capital and Society. By - November 20, a work that set the ideological foundation for the development of capitalist economy. Ensure that capital is more evenly distributed among all members of society.
Reduce taxes on labor and increases taxes on capital. Labor and Alienated Labor in Capitalist Society (A General Outline of Marx’s ideas in the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of ) by David H.
Kessel. Karl Marx - Capitalist Alienation THE TERM "alienation" in normal usage refers to a feeling of separateness, of being alone and apart from others. For Marx, alienation was not a feeling or a mental condition, but an economic and social condition of class society--in particular, capitalist society.
Once Marx's analysis reached the point where he could project the real possibilities inherent in capitalist society, however, the logical status of such views changed from being the independent principle or ideal in an ethical system to being an integral (if still to be realized) part of the real world.